Clemence Desjardins RDMS 01 January 2001
This is a rare condition occurring in about 1 in 5000 births. There are six main types only two of which are associated with an absent stomach because there is no communication between the upper gut and trachea. In 80% of cases the oesophagus ends blindly and the stomach is connected to the lower end of the trachea.Polyhydramnios is the most likely alerting feature so the diagnosis is usually made in the third trimester. The absence of a fetal stomach should arouse suspicion that the condition exists but since the majority of cases have a stomach which connects with the trachea this sign is rare. The presence of associated anomalies should always be sought. These will include cardiovascular defects in about 30%, and anorectal and genitourinary in about 15% each. The combination of these anomalies may amount to the VATER syndrome which includes vertebral, anorectal, cardiac, oesophageal anomalies, radial aplasia and single umbilical artery. Karyotypic abnormalities may also exist and Down syndrome has been reported.
Title: Second trimester prenatal findings in duodenal and oesophageal atresia without tracheoesophageal fistula
Author: Estroff JA, Parad RB, Share JC, Benacerraf BR
Journal: J Ultrasound Med 13; 375-379
Title: Oesophageal atresia and other disorders with a similar antenatal presentation
Author: Harvard AC, MacDonald LM
Journal: Br J Radiol 64; 557-558
Title: Tracheoesophageal fistula in utero. Twenty two cases
Author: Pretorius DH, Drose JA, Dennis MA, Manchester DK, Manco-Johnson ML
Journal: J Ultrasound Med 6 ; 509-513
Title: The upper neck pouch sign: a prenatal sonographic marker for esophageal atresia.
Author: Kalache KD; Chaoui R; Mau H; Bollmann R
Journal: Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol Feb;11(2):138-40
Title: Esophageal and duodenal atresia in a fetus with Down's syndrome: prenatal sonographic features.
Author: Chitty LS; Goodman J; Seller MJ; Maxwell D
Journal: Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol Jun;7(6):450-2
Title: Prenatal diagnosis of esophageal atresia.
Author: Stringer MD; McKenna KM; Goldstein RB; Filly RA; Adzick NS; Harrison MR
Journal: J Pediatr Surg Sep;30(9):1258-63
Title: Combined esophageal atresia and duodenal stenosis in polyhydramnios. Ante-, peri- and postpartum
Author: Hosli-Krais I; Tercanli S; Nars PW; Holzgreve W
Journal: Z Geburtshilfe Neonatol Jul-Aug;200(4):161-5
Title: Antenatal diagnosis of esophageal atresia with tracheoesophageal fistula.
Author: Vijayaraghavan SB
Journal: J Ultrasound Med May;15(5):417-9
Title: Antenatal sonographic detection of the proximal esophageal segment: specific evidence for congenital esophageal atresia.
Author: Satoh S; Takashima T; Takeuchi H; Koyanagi T; Nakano H
Journal: J Clin Ultrasound Sep;23(7):419-23